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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f2\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f3\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f4\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f5\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f6\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f7\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}{\f8\fswiss\cpg0\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f9\fswiss\cpg1252\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f10\fswiss\cpg1251\fcharset204 Arial;}{\f11\fswiss\cpg1250\fcharset238 Arial;}{\f12\fswiss\cpg1257\fcharset186 Arial;}{\f13\fswiss\cpg1254\fcharset162 Arial;}{\f14\fswiss\cpg1253\fcharset161 Arial;}{\f15\fswiss\cpg1255\fcharset177 Arial;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f9\fs20\b Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl1420\margr5110\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn3184\margrsxn5128\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols2\colno1\colw2300\colsr1375\colno2\colw720 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0 \f9\fs20\b{\b0\i0\scaps\cf1\charscalex68\expndtw25\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs32 the saka campaign}\par \column \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb11\sa0 \f9\fs20\b{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex68\expndtw-26\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs32 251}\par \sect\sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn1420\margrsxn5110\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li40\fi0\ri0\sb191\sa0\sl-241\slmult0 \f9\fs20\b{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-2\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 Unhappily the epigtaph is undated, otherwise we should \expndtw-6 have known the actual year of Candragupta\super 7\nosupersub  s conflict with \expndtw-2 the Sakas. But we can fix it approximately with the help \expndtw-1 of the coins. The latest issues of the Western Ksatrapas \expndtw0 are those of Rudrasimha lit, dated in the year 3ix=:388-\expndtw2 97 A.D. Now, Candragupta II started a silver currency \expndtw1 in close imitation of that of the Ksatrapas after the \expndtw0 occupation of their territory. The earliest date on these coins is 90 or 90x^409 or 409-413 A.D.\super 1\nosupersub  'We may, \expndtw3 therefore, reasonably suppose that the conquest took \expndtw9 place some time between 395 and 400 A.D.\super 2\nosupersub  An \expndtw-3 allusion to this event occurs in Bana's \i Harsacarita, \i0 al\-\expndtw0 though according to its testimony Candragupta II killed his adversary by stratagem and not in an open fight. For \expndtw6 it transmits the "scandalous tradition" that "in his enemy's city the king of the Sakas, while courting \expndtw1 another man's wife, was butchered by Candragupta \expndtw6 concealed in his mistress' dress."\super 3}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li32\fi0\ri0\sb245\sa0 \f9\fs20\b{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw10\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 Insults of the war}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li0\fi490\ri11\sb212\sa0\sl-241\slmult0 \f9\fs20\b{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw10\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 The defeat of Rudrasimha III not only resulted \expndtw-3 in the annexation of the fertile and rich regions of Malwa, \expndtw1 Gujarat, and Saurastra (Kathiawad) by the victor, but it \expndtw5 also brought the Gupta empire into direct touch with \expndtw2 the western sea-ports. This gave a tremendous impetus \expndtw5 to overseas commerce, and along with it there was a \expndtw3 free flow of ideas, to and from, foreign lands. Inland \expndtw-1 trade, too, grew with the estabHshment of a supreme \expndtw8 government over the greater part of Northern India, \expndtw5 as merchants could now transport goods right across \expndtw1 the country without having to pay customs duties at the}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li364\fi0\ri0\sb302\sa0\sl-202\slmult0\tx490 \f9\fs20\b{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 1{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\expndtw7 Candragupta II died about this year.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li364\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-202\slmult0\tx490 \f9\fs20\b{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 2{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\expndtw2 See also J. Allan, \i Cam. S/j. Hist. Jnd.\sub t\nosupersub  \i0 p. 93}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li1145\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-202\slmult0 \f9\fs20\b{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-4\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 .\sub 3\nosupersub     \expndtw94 .i.\expndtw-4  cf.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li1854\fi0\ri0\sb36\sa0 \f9\fs20\b{\b\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f9\cchs0\lang1033\fs22 is}\par }